Governance — Maps illustrating the relationship between pressures from human activities and the environmental states

Assessment of published national strategies

The majority of Mediterranean States have outdated or incomplete strategies, which are often vague, and do not give clear definitions, objectives, budgets or indicators…

Only four countries (France, Italy, Morocco and Tunisia) can claim to have detailed strategies with concrete roadmaps, or – in the case of Italy – supporting legislation in place. Seven countries (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Cyprus, Egypt, State of Palestine, Slovenia and Spain) have outdated green economy/ sustainable development strategies or none at all. NSSDs are not the only way to guide decision-making regarding sustainable development in national policies. Courses for achieving SDGs can be set in many different ways and do not necessarily materialize in an NSSD. As part of the follow-up and review mechanisms of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, states are encouraged to “conduct regular and inclusive reviews of progress at the national and sub-national levels, which are country-led and country-driven”, referred to as Voluntary National Reviews (VNRs). VNRs aim to both facilitate the sharing of experiences and to mobilize multi-stakeholder support and partnerships for the implementation of the Sustainable Development Goals.